CTX-M-type beta-lactamases constitute a novel group of class A beta-lactamases with extended-spectrum properties. They are encoded by transferable plasmids and found in various enterobacteria, mostly Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. CTX-M enzymes share extensive sequence similarity with the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Klebsiella oxytoca. They efficiently hydrolyze many newer broad-spectrum oximino-beta-lactams including cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam and are readily inhibited by tazobactam and clavulanate. CTX-M-producing enterobacteria are endemic in Latin America and in some areas of North Eastern Europe. Data on their structure, properties and epidemiology are discussed.