Because of their safety and the fact that they are not perceived as "medicine," food-derived products are highly interesting for development as chemopreventive agents that may find widespread, long-term use in populations at normal risk. Numerous diet-derived agents are included among the >40 promising agents and agent combinations that are being evaluated clinically as chemopreventive agents for major cancer targets including breast, prostate, colon and lung. Examples include green and black tea polyphenols, soy isoflavones, Bowman-Birk soy protease inhibitor, curcumin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, lycopene, indole-3-carbinol, perillyl alcohol, vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium and calcium. Many food-derived agents are extracts, containing multiple compounds or classes of compounds. For developing such agents, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has advocated codevelopment of a single or a few putative active compounds that are contained in the food-derived agent. The active compounds provide mechanistic and pharmacologic data that may be used to characterize the chemopreventive potential of the extract, and these compounds may find use as chemopreventives in higher risk subjects (patients with precancers or previous cancers). Other critical aspects to developing the food-derived products are careful analysis and definition of the extract to ensure reproducibility (e.g., growth conditions, chromatographic characteristics or composition), and basic science studies to confirm epidemiologic findings associating the food product with cancer prevention.