We studied the contribution of coping and illness perceptions to outcome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a longitudinal study, 64 patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Instrument and the Illness Perception Questionnaire. Data on coping and severity of illness (spirometry) were also collected. Regression analyses showed that first-time illness perceptions and coping significantly contributed to the prediction of social functioning, mental health, health perceptions, total functioning score, and prediction of visits to the outpatient clinic and prescribed medication 1 year later. These results have important implications for the medical management of patients with COPD.