Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on pelvic inflammatory disease

Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Apr;95(4):525-34. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(99)00621-3.


Objective: To examine the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Methods: Forty-four HIV-infected women and 163 HIV noninfected women diagnosed with PID by standard case definition were evaluated by using clinical severity scores, transabdominal sonograms, and endometrial biopsies. After testing for bacterial infections, patients were prescribed antibiotics as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Results: Symptoms of PID and analgesic use before enrollment did not differ by HIV serostatus. More HIV-infected women had received antibiotics before enrollment (40.9% versus 27.2%, P =.08), a factor associated with milder signs regardless of serostatus. More HIV-infected women had sonographically diagnosed adnexal masses at enrollment (45.8% versus 27.1%, P =.08), a difference that yielded higher median severity scores (17.5 of 42 points versus 15 of 42 points, P =.07). However, those differences were not significant at the P <.05 level. Mycoplasma (50% versus 22%, P <.05) and streptococcus species (34% versus 17%, P <.05) were isolated more commonly from biopsies of HIV-infected women. Within 30 days after enrollment, HIV-infected women generally responded as well to therapy as HIV-noninfected women did, regardless of initial CD4 T-lymphocyte percentage.

Conclusion: Among women with acute PID, HIV infection was associated with more sonographically diagnosed adnexal masses. Clinical response to CDC-recommended antibiotics did not differ appreciably by serostatus. Mycoplasmas and streptococci were isolated more commonly from HIV-infected women, but those organisms also might be associated with PID in immunocompetent women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / blood
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / complications*
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / etiology*
  • Prospective Studies