Celiac disease (CD) and diabetes mellitus type I (DM-I) are both autoimmune diseases. Abnormal first-phase insulin response (FPIR) is associated with the prediabetic phase. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and islet cell antibodies (ICAs) - especially the tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 antibodies - are considered to be serological markers of DM-I future development. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of autoantibodies (GAD, IA-2) in individuals with CD, on a gluten-free diet, who have normal intestinal morphology. Thirty patients with CD (4-22, mean 15 years), 30 newly diagnosed diabetic children (2.5-16, mean 10 years) and 30 healthy subjects (7-35, mean 18 years) were investigated. Serum GAD and IA-2 autoantibodies were assessed by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in all patients and controls. Seven CD patients (23%), 28 diabetic children (93%) and none in the control group had positive GAD and IA-2 antibodies. The FPIR was normal in CD patients (>/=46 mU/l).
Conclusions: GAD and IA-2 antibodies are detected in 23% of patients with CD. These patients may be at risk to develop DM-I. Regular follow-up and determination of FPIR for the early diagnosis of the prediabetic phase in patients with CD having circulating autoantibodies is recommended.
Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.