Practice effects on commonly used measures of executive function across twelve months

Clin Neuropsychol. 1999 Aug;13(3):283-92. doi: 10.1076/clin.


Fifty men (age M = 32.50; education M = 14.98 years) were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Ruff Figural Fluency Test (FFT), Verbal Concept Attainment Test (VCAT) Trail Making Test, Parts A and B (TMT), and F-A-S Verbal Fluency at baseline and 12 months later. WCST, FFT, and VCAT scores improved significantly over a 12-month interval. In contrast, TMT and F-A-S scores did not change. Level of intellectual ability failed to moderate the effect of previous testing upon performance. Suggestions concerning the use of these measures in longitudinal research designs and clinical follow-up examinations are offered, and reliable change indices concerning these measures are included.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cognition*
  • Humans
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Intelligence*
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Time Factors