A series of 57 patients (from 51 families) with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) has been diagnosed during the last 25 years. Using clinical and electrophysiological criteria together with results of ultrastructural, histochemical, immunohistochemical and neuropathological analyses it has been possible to classify the following NCL types. Two cases were of the infantile type (CLN1), one case of the juvenile (CLN3) type and one case of the adult (CLN4) type. The bulk of the series was represented by 26 cases of the late infantile (CLN2) type and by 27 cases of the early juvenile (CLN6) type (also called non-Finnish variant late infantile, or Lake-Cavanagh). Besides the infantile form, microcephaly was a relatively frequent finding (nine cases) in the late infantile and early juvenile NCLs. In more than half of the late infantile and early juvenile cases there was a significant reduction of the nerve conduction velocity. The early juvenile CLN6 type was found to have a relatively high incidence in the Romany population (12 cases in nine families). Incidence of NCL in the Czech republic is estimated to be 1.3:100,000.