The melanosomal protein TRP2 expressed by melanocytes and most melanoma cells is an attractive, clinically relevant model antigen for the experimental development of melanoma immunotherapy in mice. A peptide shared by murine and human TRP2 can be recognized by melanoma-reactive CTL in C57BL/6 mice, as well as in human melanoma patients. Previous experiments demonstrated that gene gun immunization of mice with plasmid DNA encoding autologous murine TRP2 was unable to induce protective immunity against B16 melanoma cells naturally expressing TRP2. In the present study, we investigated whether the use of cDNA encoding xenogeneic human TRP2, which is highly homologous to murine TRP2, would be more effective. Genetic immunization of mice with human TRP2 resulted in coat depigmentation as a sign of autoimmune-mediated destruction of melanocytes and provided significant protection against metastatic growth of B16 melanoma Induction of protective immunity was associated with TRP2-reactive antibodies and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, immunization with recombinant adenovirus was more effective than immunization with plasmid DNA using the gene gun. Our results provide new insights for the development of antigen-specific immunotherapy of melanoma.