Genetic and receptor interference data have indicated the presence of one or more cellular receptors for subgroup B, D, and E avian leukosis viruses (ALV) encoded by the s1 allele of the chicken tvb locus. Despite the prediction that these viruses use the same receptor, they exhibit a nonreciprocal receptor interference pattern: ALV-B and ALV-D can interfere with infection by all three viral subgroups, but ALV-E only interferes with infection by subgroup E viruses. We identified a tvb(s1) cDNA clone which encodes a tumor necrosis factor receptor-related receptor for ALV-B, -D, and -E. The nonreciprocal receptor interference pattern was reconstituted in transfected human 293 cells by coexpressing the cloned receptor with the envelope (Env) proteins of either ALV-B or ALV-E. This pattern of interference was also observed when soluble ALV surface (SU)-immunoglobulin fusion proteins were bound to this cellular receptor before viral challenge. These data demonstrate that viral Env-receptor interactions can account for the nonreciprocal interference between ALV subgroups B, D, and E. Furthermore, they indicate that a single chicken gene located at tvb(s1) encodes receptors for these three viral subgroups. The TVB(S1) protein differs exclusively at residue 62 from the published subgroup B- and D-specific receptor, encoded by the s3 allele of tvb. Residue 62 is a cysteine in TVB(S1) but is a serine in TVB(S3), giving TVB(S1) an even number of cysteines in the extracellular domain. We present evidence for a disulfide bond requirement in TVB(S1) for ALV-E infection but not for ALV-B infection. Thus, ALV-B and ALV-E interact in fundamentally different ways with this shared receptor, a finding that may account for the observed biological differences between these two ALV subgroups.