To understand the regulation, evolution, and genetics of lp(A2)/Edg4, a second lysophosphatidic acid receptor gene, we characterized its complete cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and chromosomal location. The full-length mouse transcript sequence was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Southern blot and restriction fragment length polymorphism segregation analyses revealed that the mouse gene was present as a single copy and located at the middle of Chromosome 8 near the mutations for myodystrophy (myd) and "kidney-anemia-testes" (kat). This region is syntenic with human chromosome 19p12, where the human genomic clone containing the lp(A2) gene (EDG4) was mapped. Sequence analysis of genomic clones demonstrated that both mouse and human transcripts were encoded by three exons, with an intron separating the coding region for transmembrane domain VI. Reverse transcriptase-PCR demonstrated that the three exons were spliced in all mouse tissues shown to express the transcript. Finally, in a comparison of all human lp(A2) sequences present in the database, we identified several sequence variants in multiple tumors. One such variant (a G deletion) in the initially characterized Edg4 cDNA clone (derived from an ovarian tumor) results in a frameshift mutation near the 3' end of the coding region. In addition to increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying lysophosphatidic acid signaling and lysophospholipid receptor gene evolution, these results have important implications regarding the genomic targeting and oncogenic potential of lp(A2).
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.