Phenotypic and molecular analyses of patients with partial chromosome 21 monosomy enabled us to define a region, spanning 2.4 Mb between D21S190 and D21S226, associated with arthrogryposis, mental retardation, hypertonia, and several facial anomalies. The markers of the region were used to screen a total human PAC library (Ioannou, RZPD). We isolated 57 PACs, which formed primary contigs. EST clusters (UNIGENE collection) located in a 6-Mb interval, between D21S260 and D21S263, were mapped in individual bacterial clones. We mapped the WI-17843 cluster to the PAC clone J12100, which contains the two anchor markers LB10T and LA329. The open reading frame extends over 960 bp, with three putative start codons. The 1695-bp cDNA containing a polyadenylation signal should correspond to the full-length cDNA. From the genomic sequence, we deduced that the gene contained five exons and that there was a putative promoter sequence upstream from exon 1. In silico screening of DNA databases revealed similarity with a murine EST. The corresponding cDNA (1757 bp) sequence was very similar (>85%) to the human cDNA and had an open reading frame of 876 nucleotides. Somatic hybrid mapping localized the cDNA to mouse chromosome 16. EST analyses and RT-PCR indicated that the third exon in the human gene (exon 2 in the mouse) undergoes alternative splicing. Northern blot hybridization showed that the gene was ubiquitously expressed in humans and mice. The longest mouse clone was used to generate riboprobes, which were hybridized to murine embryos at stages E-9.5, E-10.5, E-12.5, E-13.5, and E-14.5-15, to study the pattern of expression during development. Ubiquitous labeling was observed, with strong signals restricted to limited areas of the telencephalon, the mesencephalon, and the interrhombomeric regions in the central nervous system, and other regions of the body such as the limb buds, branchial arches, and somites.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.