Case report of a primary cryptococcosis of the lung in a 78-year old non-immunocompromised female. The patient presented with a mass in the right upper lobe, highly suspicious of lung cancer. Cryptococcus finally was detected on repeated biopsies from ulcerated and necrotic bronchial mucosa. A clinical work-up showed no evidence of dissemination and no signs of immunoinsufficiency. Mass reduction in the lung was achieved under therapy with fluconazol.