A prolonged methoxymorpholino doxorubicin (PNU-152243 or MMRDX) infusion schedule in patients with solid tumours: a phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study

Br J Cancer. 2000 Feb;82(4):767-71. doi: 10.1054/bjoc.1999.0996.


The aim of this phase I study was to assess feasibility, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of methoxymorpholino doxorubicin (MMRDX or PNU-152243) administered as a 3 h intravenous infusion once every 4 weeks. Fourteen patients with intrinsically anthracycline-resistant tumours received 37 cycles of MMRDX. The first cohort of patients was treated with 1 mg m(-2) of MMRDX. The next cohorts received 1.25 mg m(-2) and 1.5 mg m(-2) respectively. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade III/IV nausea and vomiting were observed in 1/18 cycles at 1.25 mg m(-2) and in 2/11 cycles at 1.5 mg m(-2). Transient elevation in transaminases up to CTC grade III was observed in 2/16 cycles at 1.25 mg m(-2) and 4/11 cycles at 1.5 mg m(-2). No cardiotoxicity was observed. At 1.25 mg m(-2) CTC grade IV neutropenia occurred in 1/17 cycles. At 1.5 mg m(-2) CTC grade III neutropenia was seen in 2/7 and grade IV in 3/7 evaluable cycles. Thrombocytopenia grade III was observed in 2/9 and grade IV in 1/9 evaluable cycles. One patient treated at 1.5 mg m(-2) died with neutropenic fever. Therefore, dose-limiting toxicity was reached and 1.25 mg m(-2) was considered the maximum tolerated dose for MMRDX as 3 h infusion. No tumour responses were observed. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed a rapid clearance of MMRDX from the circulation by an extensive tissue distribution. Renal excretion of the drug and its metabolite was negligible. In conclusion, prolongation of MMRDX infusion to 3 h does not improve the toxicity profile as compared with bolus administration.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage*
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics
  • Antiemetics / administration & dosage
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cohort Studies
  • Doxorubicin / administration & dosage
  • Doxorubicin / adverse effects
  • Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Antiemetics
  • methoxy-morpholinyl-doxorubicin
  • Doxorubicin