A 57-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic after interferon-beta (IFN-beta) treatment for 7 weeks. While IFN-beta therapy was continued in our outpatient clinic, his blood glucose level increased gradually, and he was admitted to our hospital for hyperglycemia. The patient was prescribed a 1,600-kcal diet and intensive insulin therapy was performed. GAD antibody became positive 15 months after the start of IFN therapy, and disappeared 27 months after the start of IFN therapy. Insulin secretion was depleted and the patient had HLA-DR4, B54, and DRB1*0405. This appears to be a case of type 1 diabetes mellitus induced by administration of IFN-beta alone.