Currently many centers offer testing for three specific mutations, 185delAG, 5382insC, and 6174delT, in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to Ashkenazi Jewish individuals at high risk for breast and ovarian cancer. We recently tested members of a family with multiple cases of breast and ovarian cancer (Family R014). The proband in this family tested positive for the 185delAG mutation. The unaffected sister of the proband tested positive for both the 185delAG and the 6174delT mutations. Further testing and review of the family history suggest that both mutations may have come from a maternal grandfather and passed down for two generations. Counseling of the unaffected double heterozygote individual in this family is complicated by lack of information on the risk of breast, ovarian, and other cancers in such individuals. A better understanding of these risks will depend on the identification and study of more individuals carrying mutations in both the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Our study emphasizes the importance of testing Ashkenazi Jewish individuals from high-risk breast and ovarian cancer families for all three common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations identified in this ethnic group.