Eighty-three pediatric patients underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants at a single institution and were included in a study evaluating the correlations between five engraftment parameters and the time to both neutrophil and platelet recovery. The parameters included: the number of nucleated cells per kg (TNC/kg), the absolute CD34+ cell content per kg (CD34+/kg), the number of mononuclear cells per kg (MNC/kg), the number of BFU-E/kg, and the number of CFU-GM/kg. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney test (alpha = 0.05) was used to determine if there were significant differences between patients with neuroblastoma (n = 45) and patients with other diagnoses (n = 38). No statistically significant differences existed between neuroblastoma patients and patients with other diagnoses. Therefore, the two groups of patients were pooled together. Data were analyzed using both a univariate and multivariate correlation method and Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). Two statistically significant logarithmic relationships were found. The first relationship was between MNC/kg and time to ANC reconstitution (P = 0.05). The second relationship was between CFU-GM/kg and time to platelet recovery (P = 0.01). Based on the statistical data, we conclude that there is no correlation between nucleated cell dose, CD34+ cell dose, and BFU-E content with either neutrophil or platelet recovery. Accordingly, in this study MNC cell dose per kilogram was the most important parameter predicting the length of time between graft infusion and neutrophil recovery while CFU-GM content per kilogram was the most important parameter predicting the length of time until platelet recovery.