The Type 1 family of growth factor receptors includes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-erbB-2, c-erbB-3 and c-erbB-4. Overexpression of the first two members is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with breast carcinoma. In this study we examined the expression of c-erbB-4 protein using the monoclonal antibody HFR-1. A total of 127 consecutive cases of primary operable invasive breast carcinoma presenting between 1975 and 1977 were studied. All patients were managed by simple mastectomy or conservation surgery with radiotherapy and no adjuvant therapy given. Long-term follow-up was maintained. Routine, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour samples were used and sections were stained immunohistochemically using the Duet StreptABC method. Immunoreactivity was classified using a simple semi-quantitative scoring method. Protein expression was generally low but definite positive cytoplasmic, membranous and nuclear reactivity was identified in 58%, 41% and 25% of cases respectively. Expression at all three sites demonstrated significant inverse associations were histological grade. In addition, membrane accentuation correlated inversely with the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), while cytoplasmic reactivity showed a positive association with c-erbB-3 expression. No significant associations were found with disease-free interval or survival. The results of this study demonstrate that higher levels of c-erbB-4 protein expression are associated with a more differentiated histological phenotype in contrast to the other members of the Type 1 family. Larger series with extended follow-up will be required to ascertain definitively the prognostic value of c-erbB-4 expression in breast carcinoma.