A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of one dose of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine was performed in Indonesia from 1993 to 1997. 67,508 persons aged 2-41 years ingested vaccine or placebo and were followed for four years, detecting cholera cases using hospital-based surveillance. A nested reactogenicity study (538 vaccinees, 535 controls) revealed no vaccine-attributable side effects. A nested immunogenicity study (N=657) showed vibriocidal seroresponses in 64-70% of vaccinees vs 1-2% of controls. Cholera incidence was lower than expected. 103 cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor diarrhea were detected, 93 evaluable for vaccine efficacy (43 vaccine, 50 placebo; efficacy=14%). A suggestion of protection was observed among persons with blood group O [P=0.12]. Only seven cases occurred within six months of vaccination, precluding assessment of short-term efficacy. In Jakarta, single-dose CVD 103-HgR did not confer long-term protection. Short-term protection from a single-dose and long-term protection from two doses have yet to be studied.