The junctionalis form of epidermolysis bullosa (EBJ) is associated with a number of clinical problems involving tooth enamel, including increased susceptibility to caries. The aim here was to carry out a chemical characterization of the enamel of teeth from EBJ patients compared with that of unaffected controls. The results showed that while protein concentration, amino acid composition and carbonate content were similar in both groups, EBJ enamel contained a significantly reduced mineral per volume content, resulting in enamel hypoplasia. In addition, Western blotting revealed the presence of serum albumin (a known inhibitor of enamel crystal growth) in EBJ enamel. This was not detected in control enamel or in enamel of teeth from patients with the dystrophic form of the disease. It is concluded that EBJ enamel is developmentally compromised and that the enamel defects are commensurate with the reported genetic lesions.