Gender differences in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries

Clin Sports Med. 2000 Apr;19(2):287-302. doi: 10.1016/s0278-5919(05)70204-0.


Female athletes have an increased incidence of ACL rupture. The cause of this increased injury rate is unclear, but it is most likely from a complex interplay between multiple variables. The relative risk of incurring an ACL injury is still low. The increased risk of ACL injury in women compared with men should not discourage female participation in sports. Instead, the focus should be on strategies to prevent injuries. Intrinsic factors are difficult or impossible to change; modifiable risk factors need to identified and prevention strategies should be employed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Knee Joint / anatomy & histology
  • Male
  • Menstruation / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Ovulation / physiology
  • Sex Characteristics*