The use of molecular phylogenetic approaches in microbial ecology has revolutionized our view of microbial diversity at high temperatures and led to the proposal of a new kingdom within the Archaea, namely, the "Korarchaeota." We report here the occurrence of another member of this archaeal group and a deeply rooted bacterial sequence from a thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park (USA). The DNA of a mixed community growing at 83 degrees C, pH 7.6, was extracted and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequences were obtained using the polymerase chain reaction. The products were cloned and five different phylogenetic types ("phylotypes") were identified: four archaeal phylotypes, designated pBA1, pBA2, pBA3, and pBA5, and only one bacterial phylotype, designated pBB. pBA5 is very closely related to the korarchaeotal phylotype, pJP27, from Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park. The pBB phylotype is a lineage within the Aquificales and, based on 16S rRNA sequence, is different enough from the members of the Aquificales to constitute a different genus. In situ hybridization with bacterial-specific and Aquificales-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probes indicated the bacterial population dominated the community and most likely contributed significantly to biogeochemical cycling within the community.