Intranasal trigeminal function is more and more understood as an integral part of human chemosensory perception. Sensations like burning, stinging, warmth, coolness, or itching are produced by almost all odorants so that they can be perceived by anosmics. Electrophysiological responses to trigeminal stimuli allow the specific assessment of trigeminally mediated information at different levels of processing including the periphery or the cortex. Information regarding the localization of these processes can be derived from magnetoencephalographic recordings or functional imaging data. When using these techniques in combination with psychophysical measures, it seems to be possible to specifically describe how and where the processing of irritation takes place, how it may interact with olfactory mediated sensations, and how it is modulated, e.g. by environmental influences or analgesic drugs.