Identification and analysis of proteins that interact with the Avena fatua homologue of the maize transcription factor VIVIPAROUS 1

Plant J. 2000 Jan;21(2):133-42. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00662.x.


The Avena fatua (wild oat) homologue of VIVIPAROUS 1 (AfVP1) has been implicated in controlling the maintenance of embryo dormancy in mature imbibed seeds, but the detailed mechanisms by which this transcription factor family activates embryo maturation pathways and simultaneously represses germination are not known. A two-hybrid screen in yeast identified three proteins that interacted specifically with AfVP1 (AfVP1 interacting proteins; AfVIPs). AfVIPs 2 and 3 interacted with the C-terminus of AfVP1, which contains the B2 + B3 domains, previously shown to bind DNA, whereas AfVIP1 interacted with the isolated B3 domain. Using purified proteins in in vitro experiments, all three AfVIPs were shown also to interact with the Arabidopsis homologue ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). The three AfVIPs were expressed in both dormant and non-dormant embryos, but the abundance of AfVIP1 and 3 transcripts was greater in germinated than dormant seeds, whereas transcripts of AfVIP2 (and AfVP1) were more highly expressed in dormant embryos. The AfVIP3 protein has homology to a human cell-crisis gene with a predicted role in the cell cycle; AfVIP2 contains a ring-type zinc finger motif. These homologies, together with analysis of expression studies, suggest that these proteins may play specific roles in AfVP1-mediated regulation of the dormancy to germination transition in A. fatua seeds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis Proteins*
  • Avena / genetics*
  • Avena / metabolism
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Germination
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Seeds / genetics*
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques


  • ABI3 protein, Arabidopsis
  • AfVP1 interacting protein 1, Avena fatua
  • AfVP1 interacting protein 2, Avena fatua
  • AfVP1 interacting protein 3, Avena fatua
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AJ251050
  • GENBANK/AJ251051
  • GENBANK/AJ251052