A 10-year prospective survey of fungaemia in the Slovak Republic, involving 31 microbiology laboratories and 71 hospitals, was conducted from 1989-1998 (10 years): 310 fungaemias were analyzed for etiology, clinical characteristics, therapy, and outcome. C. albicans was responsible for 191 (61.6%) fungaemias, non-albicans Candida spp. (NAC) for 97 (31.3%), non-Candida yeasts for 18 (5.8%) and moulds (Fulsarium spp.) for four fungaemias. The most frequent NAC isolated from blood cultures were C. parapsilosis--30 (9.7%), C. krusei--18 (5.8%), C. tropicalis--14 (4.5%), and C. glabrata--10 (3.2%). Secular trends in etiology showed a sustaining decrease of C. albicans (from 100% in 1989 to 50.7% in 1998) and increase of NAC (from 0% in 1989-1990 to 46.3% in 1998). Non-Candida yeasts and moulds showed a stable proportion during the investigated period. There were statistically significant differences in etiology of fungaemia various subgroups of patients: non-albicans Candida spp. was significantly more frequent observed among subgroups of patients with pancreatitis and coma (53.3% vs. 31.3%, p < or = 0.02) and less frequently in the subgroup of neonates (15.0% vs. 31.3%, p < or = 0.006). Vice versa, C. albicans appeared more frequently in neonates (85%).