Understanding choice of milk and bread for breakfast among Swedish children aged 11-15 years: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

Appetite. 2000 Feb;34(1):5-19. doi: 10.1006/appe.1999.0269.


The present study examined the influences of attitudes, social norms, perceived control and underlying beliefs on 11 to 15-year-olds' breakfast choices of milk with different fat content and high-fibre bread. All pupils in the 5th, 7th and 9th grades in Mölndal community (N=1730), Sweden, were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two weeks later, they were asked to fill in a 7-day record of food consumed for breakfast. Consumption of milk and high-fibre bread was predicted from intentions, and for milk also by perceived behavioural control. Intentions were influenced by attitudes, perceptions of significant others' preferences, and perceived control. In addition, perception of the parents' consumption (descriptive norm) of the specific food played an important role. Attitudes, norms and perceived control predicted intentions to a similar extent in each age group. Attitudes to the consumption of milk and high fibre bread were influenced by beliefs about their sensory and health aspects. Females and the oldest children had greater knowledge about the healthier alternatives and the oldest children had a tendency to choose healthier options.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Attitude
  • Bread*
  • Child
  • Choice Behavior*
  • Diet Records
  • Female
  • Food Preferences / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Milk*
  • Peer Group
  • Psychological Theory
  • Sex Factors
  • Social Control, Formal
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Sweden