Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in monkeys with patterns of brain activity associated with fearful temperament

Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Apr 1;47(7):579-85. doi: 10.1016/s0006-3223(99)00256-5.


Background: Asymmetric patterns of frontal brain activity and brain corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems have both been separately implicated in the processing of normal and abnormal emotional responses. Previous studies in rhesus monkeys demonstrated that individuals with extreme right frontal asymmetric brain electrical activity have high levels of trait-like fearful behavior and increased plasma cortisol concentrations.

Methods: In this study we assessed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRH concentrations in monkeys with extreme left and extreme right frontal brain electrical activity. CSF was repeatedly collected at 4, 8, 14, 40, and 52 months of age.

Results: Monkeys with extreme right frontal brain activity had increased CSF CRH concentrations at all ages measured. In addition, individual differences in CSF CRH concentrations were stable from 4 to 52 months of age.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in primates, the fearful endophenotype is characterized by increased fearful behavior, a specific pattern of frontal electrical activity, increased pituitary-adrenal activity, and increased activity of brain CRH systems. Data from other preclinical studies suggests that the increased brain CRH activity may underlie the behavioral and physiological characteristics of fearful endophenotype.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aging / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Aging / physiology
  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / physiology
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Dominance, Cerebral*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Fear / physiology*
  • Female
  • Frontal Lobe / metabolism
  • Frontal Lobe / physiology
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology
  • Temperament / physiology*


  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Hydrocortisone