Determination of carphedon in human urine by solid-phase microextraction using capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection

Analyst. 1999 Nov;124(11):1559-62. doi: 10.1039/a906027h.


Carphedon is a phenyl derivative of nootropil and is effective in increasing physical endurance and cold resistance, and is used for amnesia treatment. Carphedon was extracted from human urine samples by solid-phase microextraction with a 65 microns carbowax-divinylbenzene-coated fiber. This analysis was performed by using capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection and optimized at pH 9.6, 30% NaCl, immersion time 10 min and desorption in the GC injector at 250 degrees C for 3 min. The regression equation for carphedon showed good linearity in the range from 0.1 to 10 micrograms ml-1 for human urine samples. The limit of detection was 0.01 microgram ml-1. The developed method is more sensitive and simpler in sample preparation than liquid-liquid extraction and can be applied to doping analysis for stimulants.

MeSH terms

  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / urine*
  • Chromatography, Gas / methods
  • Humans
  • Piracetam / analogs & derivatives*
  • Piracetam / urine
  • Substance Abuse Detection / methods*


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • 4-phenylpiracetam
  • Piracetam