Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces boulardii and Escherichia coli are probiotic strains used individually to protect against enteropathogenic agents. In order to determine if a synergistic effect of the individual protective mechanisms ordinarily attributed to each of these biotherapeutic agents is possible, we orally administered Lact. acidophilus H2B20, S. boulardii and E. coli EMO (LSE) to germfree mice. Ten days after colonization of the digestive tract, groups of animals associated (experimental) or not (control) with LSE were challenged orally with streptomycin resistant (Sfr) or streptomycin sensitive (Sfs) Shigella flexneri strains or Salmonella enteritidis subsp. typhimurium. Bacterial counts in faeces from experimental mice showed that the Sfr strain was eliminated 11 d after challenge while Sfs and S. enteritidis subsp. typhimurium colonized the digestive tract and continued to be present at high population levels (108 CFU g-1 of faeces), which is similar to that observed in control animals. All possible di- and monoassociations of the three probiotics with gnotobiotic mice were also performed before experimental oral infection with Sfr. The data showed that antagonism was obtained only when E. coli EMO was present. Different sensitivity of Sh. flexneri Sfr and Sfs to E. coli EMO antagonism could be explained by the different generation times between Sfr and Sfs, as shown by colonization kinetic experiments in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice.