Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1), neuronal pentraxin 2 (NP2), and neuronal pentraxin receptor (NPR) are members of a new family of proteins identified through interaction with a presynaptic snake venom toxin taipoxin. We have proposed that these three neuronal pentraxins represent a novel neuronal uptake pathway that may function during synapse formation and remodeling. We have investigated the mutual interactions of these proteins by characterizing their enrichment on taipoxin affinity columns; by expressing NP1, NP2, and NPR singly and together in Chinese hamster ovary cells; and by generating mice that fail to express NP1. NP1 and NP2 are secreted, exist as higher order multimers (probably pentamers), and interact with taipoxin and taipoxin-associated calcium-binding protein 49 (TCBP49). NPR is expressed on the cell membrane and does not bind taipoxin or TCBP49 by itself, but it can form heteropentamers with NP1 and NP2 that can be released from cell membranes. This is the first demonstration of heteromultimerization of pentraxins and release of a pentraxin complex by proteolysis. These processes are likely to directly effect the localization and function of neuronal pentraxins in neuronal uptake or synapse formation and remodeling.