The plant V-ATPase is a primary-active proton pump present at various components of the endomembrane system. It is assembled by different protein subunits which are located in two major domains, the membrane-integral V(o)-domain and the membrane peripheral V(1)-domain. At the plant vacuole the V-ATPase is responsible for energization of transport of ions and metabolites, and thus the V-ATPase is important as a 'house-keeping' and as a stress response enzyme. It has been shown that transcript and protein amount of the V-ATPase are regulated depending on metabolic conditions indicating that the expression of V-ATPase subunit is highly regulated. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that modulation of the holoenzyme structure might influence V-ATPase activity.