Liquid ammonia injury

Burns. 2000 Jun;26(4):409-13. doi: 10.1016/s0305-4179(99)00141-2.


The toxic effects of a gas depend on the time of exposure, concentration and its chemical nature. Pressurized liquids and gases exert an additional cold thermal injury and this may complicate the clinical picture. A patient who had an accidental exposure to liquid ammonia over a prolonged period, manifesting in cutaneous, respiratory and ocular damage in addition to a severe cold thermal injury (frostbite) with a fatal outcome is presented. The patient had flaccid quadriparesis and episodes of bradycardia, which has not been reported previously. These manifestations raise the possibility of the systemic toxicity in patients with prolonged exposure to ammonia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Occupational
  • Ammonia / adverse effects*
  • Bradycardia / etiology
  • Burns, Chemical / etiology*
  • Chemical Industry
  • Cold Temperature / adverse effects*
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Frostbite / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Quadriplegia / chemically induced
  • Respiration Disorders / chemically induced


  • Ammonia