Management of gastrointestinal bleeding induced by gastrointestinal endoscopy

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2000 Mar;29(1):125-67, vi-vii. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8553(05)70110-2.


Therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy has a much greater risk of inducing gastrointestinal hemorrhage than diagnostic endoscopy. For example, colonoscopic polypectomy has a risk of approximately 1.6% of inducing bleeding, compared with a risk of approximately 0.02% for diagnostic colonoscopy. Higher-risk procedures include colonoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic dilatation, endoscopic variceal therapy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and endoscopic sharp foreign body retrieval. The risk of inducing hemorrhage is decreased by meticulous endoscopic technique. Hemorrhage from endoscopy may be immediate or delayed. Immediate hemorrhage should be immediately treated by endoscopic hemostatic therapy, including injection therapy, thermocoagulation, or electrocoagulation. Delayed hemorrhage generally requires repeat endoscopy for diagnosis and for therapy, using the same hemostatic techniques.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / adverse effects*
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / epidemiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors