Anemia secondary to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was recently described in experimental animals. A clinical association between MMF and anemia has been observed, but there are no proven reports. We describe a girl with chronic graft failure who developed erythroid aplasia under immunosuppression with MMF. She showed prompt resolution when MMF was discontinued and a recurrence of this clinical course when MMF was restarted. As re-challenge with a medication is the most definitive approach for showing a direct relationship between the drug and the side effect, this case clearly demonstrates that MMF can cause erythroid aplasia.