From 1 January 1995 through 31 June 1997, 153 cases of coccidioidomycosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons were identified in Arizona (incidence, 41/1000 persons living with AIDS). A case-control study was conducted to evaluate risk factors for coccidioidomycosis in HIV-infected persons. A case was defined as laboratory-confirmed, incident coccidioidomycosis in a person infected with HIV for > or =3 months, and each case patient had 3 control patients matched by county, age group, sex, HIV/AIDS status, and CD4 lymphocyte count. Multivariable analysis identified black race and a history of oropharyngeal or esophageal candidiasis to be associated with increased risk of coccidioidomycosis; protease inhibitor therapy was associated with a reduced risk. In persons with previous history of oropharyngeal or esophageal candidiasis, having received an azole drug was associated with a reduced risk (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.9; P=.04). Physicians may need to consider azole chemoprophylaxis for HIV-infected persons who live in areas of endemicity, have CD4 cell counts <200/microL, are black, or have a history of thrush.