Background: During the mating pheromone response in budding yeast, activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) cascade results in well-characterized changes in cytoskeletal organization and gene expression. Spatial reorganization of genes within the nucleus has been documented during cell-type differentiation in mammalian cells, but no information was previously available on the morphology of the yeast nucleus during the major transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies zygote formation.
Results: We find that in response to mating pheromone, budding yeast nuclei assume an unusual dumbbell shape, reflecting a spatial separation of chromosomal and nucleolar domains. Within the chromosomal domain, telomeric foci persist and maintain their associated complement of Sir proteins. The nucleolus, on the other hand, assumes a novel cup-shaped morphology and a position distal to the mating projection tip. Although microtubules are required for this orientation with respect to the projection tip, neither microtubules nor actin polymerization are necessary for the observed changes in nuclear shape. We find that activation of the pheromone-response MAP kinase pathway by ectopic expression of STE4 or STE11 leads to identical nuclear and nucleolar reorganization in the absence of pheromone. Mutation of downstream effector MAP kinases Fus3p and Kss1p, or of the transcriptional regulator Ste12p, blocks nuclear shape changes, whereas overexpression of Ste12p promotes dumbbell-shaped nuclei in the absence of pheromone.
Conclusions: Nuclear remodeling occurs when the MAP kinase cascade is activated by yeast pheromone, but it is independent of the cytoskeletal reorganization regulated by the same signaling pathway. Activation of the Ste12p transcription factor is necessary, and may be sufficient, for the changes in nuclear structure that coincide with developmentally significant changes in gene expression.