Neuropsychological findings on the human neglect syndrome after parietal damage may relate to the physiological properties of single cells that have been studied in monkey parietal cortex and in related brain areas. Human neglect may reflect partial loss or dysfunction of similar cell populations, producing a pathological gradient in the numbers of cells representing particular lateral positions in space, for particular functions. This can explain the graded deficits seen in patients. We relate the patient deficits to cellular properties for several current issues: spatial frames-of-reference; multimodal integration; effective treatments for neglect; motor components to parietal function; and residual unconscious processing. A neural perspective may resolve traditional debates in the neglect literature and outline directions for future research.