Mutations in kerato-epithelin are responsible for a group of hereditary cornea-specific deposition diseases, 5q31-linked corneal dystrophies. These conditions are characterized by progressive accumulation of protein deposits of different ultrastructure. Herein, we studied the corneas with mutations at kerato-epithelin residue Arg-124 resulting in amyloid (R124C), non-amyloid (R124L), and a mixed pattern of deposition (R124H). We found that aggregated kerato-epithelin comprised all types of pathological deposits. Each mutation was associated with characteristic changes of protein turnover in corneal tissue. Amyloidogenesis in R124C corneas was accompanied by the accumulation of N-terminal kerato-epithelin fragments, whereby species of 44 kDa were the major constituents of amyloid fibrils. R124H corneas with prevailing non-amyloid inclusions showed accumulation of a new 66-kDa species altogether with the full-size 68-kDa form. Finally, in R124L cornea with non amyloid deposits, we found only the accumulation of the 68-kDa form. Two-dimensional gels revealed mutation-specific changes in the processing of the full-size protein in all affected corneas. It appears that substitutions at the same residue (Arg-124) result in cornea-specific deposition of kerato-epithelin via distinct aggregation pathways each involving altered turnover of the protein in corneal tissue.