Multiple drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus in semen but not blood of a man on antiretroviral therapy

Urology. 2000 Apr;55(4):591. doi: 10.1016/s0090-4295(99)00592-0.


The concept that the male reproductive tract harbors isolated reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has now been widely accepted. The significance of semen viral burden to sexual transmission of HIV is obvious; however, its contribution to disease progression is unknown. We report a case study that demonstrates the emergence of resistance-conferring mutations to antiviral therapy in infected seminal leukocytes from a man with asymptomatic prostatitis associated with leukospermia. This finding demonstrates the potential importance of male reproductive tract organs to the development of therapy resistance in HIV-infected men.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple*
  • HIV / drug effects*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Semen / virology*


  • Anti-HIV Agents