High levels of TIMP-2 correlate with adverse prognosis in breast cancer

Int J Cancer. 2000 Mar 20;89(2):118-21. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(20000320)89:2<118::aid-ijc3>3.0.co;2-8.


TIMP-2 is an endogenous inhibitor of MMPs. Most data from model systems suggest that high levels of this inhibitor prevent metastasis. In human breast cancers, however, we show that high levels of TIMP-2 correlate with both shortened disease-free interval and overall survival. In primary breast cancers, TIMP-2 levels showed no significant relationship with either tumor size or axillary node status but correlated inversely with estrogen receptor levels. TIMP-2 levels also correlated significantly with those for TIMP-1. We conclude that high levels of endogenous TIMP-2, like other protease inhibitors such as PAI-1 and TIMP-1, correlate with progression of human breast cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2