The human homolog of insect-derived growth factor, CECR1, is a candidate gene for features of cat eye syndrome

Genomics. 2000 Mar 15;64(3):277-85. doi: 10.1006/geno.1999.6099.


Cat eye syndrome (CES) is a developmental disorder with multiple organ involvement, associated with the duplication of a 2-Mb region of 22q11.2. Using exon trapping and genomic sequence analysis, we have isolated and characterized a gene, CECR1, that maps to this critical region. The protein encoded by CECR1 is similar to previously identified novel growth factors: IDGF from Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) and MDGF from Aplysia californica (sea hare). The CECR1 gene is alternatively spliced and expressed in numerous tissues, with most abundant expression in human adult heart, lung, lymphoblasts, and placenta as well as fetal lung, liver, and kidney. In situ hybridization of a human embryo shows specific expression in the outflow tract and atrium of the developing heart, the VII/VIII cranial nerve ganglion, and the notochord. The location of this gene in the CES critical region and its embryonic expression suggest that the overexpression of CECR1 may be responsible for at least some features of CES, particularly the heart defects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Adenosine Deaminase
  • Adult
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anus, Imperforate / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Chromosome Aberrations / genetics*
  • Chromosome Disorders
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22*
  • Coloboma / genetics
  • Fetus / metabolism
  • Growth Substances / genetics*
  • Growth Substances / metabolism
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Insect Proteins / genetics
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Specificity
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Syndrome


  • Growth Substances
  • Insect Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • ADA2 protein, human
  • Adenosine Deaminase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF190746