Chemical and physiological characterization of fluo-4 Ca(2+)-indicator dyes

Cell Calcium. 2000 Feb;27(2):97-106. doi: 10.1054/ceca.1999.0095.


We have developed fluo-4, a new fluorescent dye for quantifying cellular Ca2+ concentrations in the 100 nM to 1 microM range. Fluo-4 is similar in structure and spectral properties to the widely used fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dye, fluo-3, but it has certain advantages over fluo-3. Due to its greater absorption near 488 nm, fluo-4 offers substantially brighter fluorescence emission when used with excitation by argon-ion laser or other sources in conjunction with the standard fluorescein filter set. In vitro, fluo-4 exhibited high fluorescence emission, a high rate of cell permeation, and a large dynamic range for reporting [Ca2+] around a Kd(Ca2+) of 345 nM. We have also developed several Ca(2+)-indicators related to fluo-4 having lower affinities for Ca2+ that are useful in cellular studies requiring quantification of higher [Ca2+]. In a variety of physiological studies of live cells, fluo-4 labeled cells more brightly than did fluo-3, when challenged with procedures designed to elevate calcium levels. Fluo-4 is well suited for photometric and imaging applications that make use of confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, or spectrofluorometry, or in fluorometric high-throughput microplate screening assays. Because of its higher fluorescence emission intensity, fluo-4 can be used at lower intracellular concentrations, making its use a less invasive practice.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells / metabolism
  • Aniline Compounds / chemistry*
  • Aniline Compounds / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • Xanthenes / chemistry*
  • Xanthenes / metabolism*


  • Aniline Compounds
  • Fluo 4
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Xanthenes
  • Fluo-3
  • Calcium