High throughput gene expression profiling is increasingly becoming a desirable method for identifying genes differentially expressed in disease versus normal tissues. Microarrays and gene chips containing hundreds to thousands of genes of interest, both known and novel, can be used to establish the expression profile of numerous genes in a single experiment. In order to validate the hits emerging out of such an experiment it is necessary to use an appropriate panel of the cDNA repository. We investigated the usefulness of such a method to identify prostate cancer-specific genes. A microarray containing 588 known genes was analyzed using cDNA probes derived from normal and three independent prostate tumors. At least 19/588 genes were found to be differentially expressed in the tumors in comparison to the normal tissue. Among the nine test genes chosen, one gene, Glutathione-S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), showed a correlation with the microarray results when analyzed by RT-PCR. Using a comprehensive panel of normal and tumor tissues and cancer-derived cell lines, we have rapidly validated the expression relevance of GSTT1 in solid tumors. The microarray was also useful in the preliminary identification of androgen-regulated genes in the prostate tumor models. These results indicate that microarray in combination with a relevant cDNA repository can facilitate rapid identification of potential targets for therapy and diagnosis of prostate and other cancers.