A focused preconceptional and early pregnancy program in women with type 1 diabetes reduces perinatal mortality and malformation rates to general population levels

J Matern Fetal Med. 2000 Jan-Feb;9(1):14-20. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6661(200001/02)9:1<14::AID-MFM5>3.0.CO;2-K.


Objective: To evaluate the impact of a focused preconceptional and early pregnancy program specializing in the care of women with Type 1 diabetes on perinatal mortality and congenital malformations.

Methods: This clinical study included women with Type 1 diabetes in an interdisciplinary Diabetes in Pregnancy Program Project Grant (PPG) funded by the NIH (1978-1993); these women were enrolled preconceptionally or during the first trimester (up to 14 weeks) and had pregnancies continuing beyond 20 weeks gestation. Strict glucose control was implemented and adherence assessed. Antepartum fetal surveillance was started at 32 weeks gestation. All live-born infants and stillbirths were examined. A retrospective comparison analysis of the period before PPG I (1973-1978) and after cessation of funding (1993-1999) was performed, specifically evaluating perinatal mortality and congenital malformation rates. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, chi2, and Fisher's exact test.

Results: Three hundred and six women were enrolled in three 5-year periods: PPG I (1978-1983) n = 111, PPG II (1983-1988) n = 103, and PPG III (1988-1993) n = 92. Entry and interval glycohemoglobin A1 concentrations obtained decreased with each consecutive PPG. An emphasis on preconception care began in 1984, with preconception enrollment reaching 23% for PPG II and increasing in PPG III to 37%. As preconception enrollment increased, perinatal mortality rate decreased from 3% for PPG I and 2% for PPG II, to 0% in PPG III, and the congenital malformation rate decreased to a low 2.2% by PPG III. Comparison data collected for the period before PPG 1 (1973-1978) n = 79 revealed a perinatal mortality rate of 7% and a congenital malformation rate of 14%. Also, a postprogram retrospective analysis of the period 1993-1999 (n = 82) revealed an increase in perinatal mortality, with one death compared to none in PPG III, and a congenital malformation rate of 3.65% compared to 2.2% during PPG III. The preconception enrollment for this period decreased (19.5%).

Conclusions: A program emphasizing preconceptional care, strict glycemic control preconceptionally and throughout gestation, and the use of antepartum fetal surveillance was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of perinatal mortality and congenital malformations in infants of women with Type 1 diabetes. However, ongoing improved outcome appears to depend on the availability of funding for a specialized preconception program.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Birth Weight
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Congenital Abnormalities / epidemiology
  • Congenital Abnormalities / etiology
  • Congenital Abnormalities / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Female
  • Fetal Death / prevention & control*
  • Fetal Monitoring
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant Mortality
  • Infant, Newborn
  • National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
  • Preconception Care*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / complications
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / therapy*
  • Prenatal Care*
  • United States
  • Weight Gain


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A