Three zinc finger nuclear proteins, Sp1, Sp3, and a ZBP-89 homologue, bind to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive sequence of the bovine adrenodoxin gene and regulate transcription

Biochemistry. 2000 Apr 18;39(15):4347-57. doi: 10.1021/bi992298f.


Adrenocorticotropin acting through cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulates transcription of the bovine adrenodoxin (Adx) gene in the adrenal cortex. The bovine Adx cAMP-responsive transcription sequence (CRS) has previously been found to contain two consensus GC boxes. By use of nuclear extracts from adrenocortical cells, Sp1 and Sp3 are shown here to bind to CRS. Mutations designed to enhance the identification of additional CRS binding proteins by reducing Sp protein binding showed the presence of an additional DNA-binding protein (Adx factor). Adx factor binding is inhibited by the zinc-chelating agent, 1,10-o-phenanthroline, suggesting it might be a zinc finger protein. By a fractionation/renaturation technique the Adx factor in mouse Y1 adrenocortical cells was found to be in the size range of 106-115 kDa by gel mobility shift assay. On the basis of size, the CRS sequence to which it binds, and its tentative identification as a zinc finger protein, Adx factor has been identified as a Krüppel-like zinc finger protein (a mouse ZBP-89 homologue). Further mutagenesis of CRS demonstrates that it can further be divided into two similar cAMP-responsive elements, and elimination of ZBP-89 binding does not affect cAMP responsiveness of either. Expression of these three nuclear proteins in Drosophila SL2 cells has been used to decipher the role of Adx CRS binding proteins in regulating transcription. Sp1 and Sp3 confer basal transcriptional activities, yet only Sp1 confers cAMP-responsive activity. ZBP-89 represses basal transcriptional activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex / cytology
  • Adrenal Cortex / metabolism
  • Adrenodoxin / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cattle
  • Cell Line
  • Chelating Agents / pharmacology
  • Consensus Sequence / genetics
  • Cyclic AMP / pharmacology*
  • DNA / genetics
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Molecular Weight
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / chemistry
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Phenanthrolines / pharmacology
  • Repressor Proteins / chemistry
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Response Elements / genetics*
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / genetics
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism*
  • Sp3 Transcription Factor
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Zinc Fingers*


  • Chelating Agents
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phenanthrolines
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Sp3 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors
  • Zfp148 protein, mouse
  • Adrenodoxin
  • Sp3 Transcription Factor
  • DNA
  • Cyclic AMP
  • 1,10-phenanthroline