Arabidopsis thaliana SHAGGY-related protein kinases (AtSK11 and 12) function in perianth and gynoecium development

Plant J. 2000 Mar;21(5):419-29. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00691.x.


In higher plants, the correct patterning of the floral meristem in terms of organ type, number and form is the result of a concerted expression of a network of genes. We describe phenotypes of flower patterning, resulting from a reduction of transcript levels of the Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinase genes AtSK11(ASKalpha) and AtSK12(ASKgamma). The AtSK genes are plant homologues of the Drosophila shaggy (SGG) gene and the mammalian Glycogen-Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). The SGG protein kinase is a key component of the wingless signalling pathway and is required for the establishment of tissue patterning and cell fate determination. The expression patterns of the AtSK11(ASKalpha) and AtSK12(ASKgamma) genes during wild-type Arabidopsis inflorescence development, detected by in situ hybridisation, have been shown to be consistent with a possible role in floral meristem patterning. AtSK11(ASKalpha) and AtSK12(ASKgamma) transcripts were detected at the periphery of the inflorescence meristem and in the floral meristem. At later stages the expression of the AtSK genes became localised in specific regions of developing flower organ primordia. Furthermore, we have obtained and analysed transgenic plants containing AtSK11(ASKalpha) and AtSK12(ASKgamma) gene specific antisense constructs. These plants developed flowers showing a higher number of perianth organs and an alteration of the apical-basal patterning of the gynoecium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / enzymology*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / ultrastructure
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Phenotype
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism


  • DNA Primers
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Sgg protein, Drosophila
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3