The paper presents the results of somatic, neurologic and neurophysiologic examination of 614 children which had hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of a moderate degree during the period from the birth till 3 years old. A period of gestation was characterised by some signs of fetoplacental insufficiency in 44.3% of children. Disorders in labor activity were revealed in 83.7% of mothers. Delay in nervous-mental development (77.3%), deviations in forming rhythmic EEG activity (75%), signs of morphologic immaturity of brain (38.8%) testified to inhibition of postnatal neuroontogenesis. All that together with high frequency of motor disorders (73.3%) and disorders in cerebral blood flow (43.8%) during the 1-st year of life were found to underlie development of psychoneurologic diseases in children of early age and necessitates early rehabilitation of these children.