Depression is a frequent psychiatric symptom in epilepsy and has been related to epilepsy of temporal origin, especially of left-sided foci. No study differentiated the precise localization of the epileptogenic lesion within the temporal lobe. Regarding this issue, we evaluated depression assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory in 60 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, with particular consideration of morphological abnormalities within the temporal lobe (mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) versus neocortical lesions) and lateralization of the lesion. Multivariate analyses indicated significant higher depression scores in MTS independent of the lateralization of the lesion. Depression was a good indicator for MTS but not vice versa. Hence, MTS can be discussed as a predisposing factor for the development of mood disorders in focal epilepsy.