Dupuytren's disease or palmar fibromatosis is a common disabling hand disorder, mainly confined to Caucasians of northwestern European origin. The prevalence of Dupuytren's disease and possible risk factors related to the disease were evaluated in a random sample of 1297 males and 868 females, aged 46 to 74 years. Blood samples were collected and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The possible relation between the disease and clinical, social, and biochemical parameters were estimated with age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analysis. Altogether 19.2% of the males and 4.4% of the female participants had clinical signs of Dupuytren's disease. The prevalence increased with age, from 7.2% among males in the age group 45-49 years up to 39.5% in those 70-74 years old. The more severe form of the disease, finger contractures, was found in 5.0% of the men and 1.4% had required operation, while this was rarely seen among women. In men elevated fasting blood glucose (P < 0.04), low body weight, and body mass index were significantly correlated with the presence of the disease (P < 0.001). Dupuytren's disease was common among heavy smokers (P = 0.02) and those having manual labor as occupation (P = 0.018). These results show that Dupuytren's disease is common in the Icelandic population and occupation and lifestyle seem to be related to the disease.