Recombinant fractalkine possesses both chemoattractive and adhesive properties in vitro. Previous studies have demonstrated an upregulation of this molecule on the membranes of activated human endothelial cells and hypothesised that fractalkine plays a role in the recruitment and adherence of monocytes to the activated endothelium. Here we present data analysing both the adhesive and chemoattractive properties of this chemokine expressed by activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We demonstrate that both recombinant fractalkine and endogenously produced fractalkine function as adhesion molecules, tethering monocytes to the endothelium. However, our data demonstrate that although recombinant fractalkine has the potential to function as a potent monocyte chemoattractant, the endogenous fractalkine cleaved from activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells is not responsible for the observed chemotaxis in this model. Instead, we show that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), secreted from the activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, is responsible for the chemotaxis of these monocytes.