Aloe barbadensis polysaccharide was partially digested with cellulase and further purified by dialysis, stepwise ethanol precipitation, and size exclusion chromatography. Crude modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) activated macrophage cells and stimulated fibroblast growth. Under the same conditions, native Aloe barbadensis gel had no effect on macrophage activation. MAP prevented ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced immune suppression as determined by contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response in C3H/HeN mice. This in vivo activity was correlated with the activity of MAP to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) release from human epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB cells). MAP with an average molecular weight of 80,000 Dalton (Da) contained mannose, galactose, and glucose in a ratio of 40:1.4:1.0. MAP was likely a linear, highly acetylated molecule.